Science Notebook



Poop Lab


Steps on how to make poop:

Step one: 
  • Insert food into the mouth.
  • Begin to chop up the food with your incisors and molars as posed with the scissors and cups.
  • As you chew, the enzyme in your mouth, amylase, is slowly starting to break down the starch from the food in your mouth.  

         

                           ***FUN FACT***
        The tongue has on average 3,000 - 10,000 taste buds.




Step two:
  • Once you have crushed all the food between your incisors and molar proceed to swallow and send the chewed up food to the esophagus as the photo is mimicking with the paper towel and the students shoving down the food into the plastic bag. 
  • After the food goes down the esophagus, it leads out into the stomach. 

 

                        ***FUN FACT***
 The esophagus is a pink moist muscular tissue called mucous that is 8 inches long.




Step three: 
  • As the food reaches the stomach, the stomach starts to contract to crush down the food as imitated with the students hands breaking it into smaller pieces. 
  • The following enzymes in the stomach consists of pepsin, lipase and HCI which help to chemically break down the food in the stomach.
  • Once the food in the stomach is all crushed up, go ahead and send it straight down to the small intestine.
  • Between the stomach and the small intestine, the food will spend about six to eight hours digesting.
  • A plastic bag acted as the stomach because it has a seal and cannot spill out and with the amount of acid in your stomach, if were to leak out, would poison your body.
                        

                          ***FUN FACT***

         When you blush, the walls of your stomach also turn red.




Step four: 
  • Once it has reached the small intestine, slowly start to contract mush of food.
  • This is the stop where all the nutrient is taken in. 
  • As represented, the nylon stocking is used because it keeps all the solids in while letting the liquids drain out and soaked up by the pee pad.   
  • The enzymes that are in this part of the digestive system are bile, lipase, amylase, and pepsin which all help break down or turn into the nutrients your body needs. 
  • Now send it down to the large intestine and after that to the rectum.
                         


                           ***FUN FACT***
      The small intestine is 7 meters long or 23 feet.





Step five:
  • After just coming out of the large intestine, the "food" will begin the process contracting and this is where you will feel the need to go to the bathroom. 
  • While the rectum is not only contracting, it is also absorbing water. 
  • Next, push the "food" out from the anal. Now being out of the body, the proper term would now be feces.



                           


                            ***FUN FACT***
         Feces is made out of all the things that your body does not need and is left over.








Additional Information

Constipation: The reason that one might be constipated is because the body, or the large intestine, is absorbing to much water. Therefore, this person will get backed up.


Diarrhea: The opposite goes for diarrhea. The body is not absorbing enough water.  


                                                                   
Pond
Whats in it: Macroscopic 


-Ponds are stagnant
             -No movement 

-184 different bacteria in a pond  

E. coli
source: fecal contamination
symptoms: fever, diarrhea, rarely stroke or kidney failure

Salmonella
source:  fecal contamination; 1 in warm animals 
Symptoms: fever, diarrhea and vomiting 


Vocab

Macroscopic:
Photoautotrophs:
Heterotrophs: 

---------------------------------------------
Chlorine and Lead in Tap Water
Where does tap come from?
- Rivers, sewers, ponds, and ground 
-2% potable 

How filtered
-Water comes from houses and filtered 

Chlorine
- toxic, irritant. pale green gas
-kills bacteria and microbiological organisms

how effects:
- reacts with other chemicals
-low level of harm

Lead
-color starts blue then turns black when touches air
-never safe
-goes into water through piping in house: mainly in older houses
-soft or corrosive

effects:
- air pollution
- soil
-moves through the ecosystem
-organ damage: stops brain growth


Vocab
Potable:
Microbiological:
Corrosive:
---------------------------------------
pH and the Ocean
- Normal rang is 8.0-8.4
-Environment can effect pH level 
-pH strips are a strips of the filter paper soaked with pH indicator

Vocab word: Acids: a molecular or other entity that 
                     Base: a molecule that accepts protons 

Why change color?
- Acids /base either accepts or donate hydrogen ion

How relates to environment
- Damages reproductive disorders in fish
-Past 300 million years pH has been 8.2, now 8.1
-Oceans absorbs CO2 and turns into carbonic acid, lead to higher acidity




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Image credit: Biogeochemical cycles: Figure 1 by OpenStax College, Concepts of Biology, CC BY 4.0


Image credit: "Biogeochemical cycles: Figure 3" by OpenStax College, Biology, CC BY 4.0




---------------------------------------------


Ecology Vocab

Ecology: The study of how living things interact with each other and their environment.

Ecosystem: All living and non living things in an area and their interactions. 

Abiotic Factor: Any part of an ecosystem that isn't alive or has never been alive.

Biotic Factor: The part of the ecosystem that is alive.

Adaptation: A characteristic that helps an organism survive in its environment.

Biome: A plant and animal community that covers a large part of the earth 

Detritivore: An organism (as an earth worm or a fungus) that feed on dead and decomposing matter.

Community: A group of organism living together in a certain area 

Consumers:  An organism that survives by eating producers or other consumers in it's ecosystem. 

Carnivore: An organism that only eats other consumers.

Deforestation: The cutting down and clearing of a forest land - will usually lead to increase soil erosion in this area. 




----------------------------------------------------




Helicase >enzyme>protein 
  
broken strain is lagging 
holding strain is leading 

Vocab
1. chromosomes
2. Double Helix
3. Anti-parallel
4. 

DNA Notes


- all living things have DNA
- DNA is found in the Nucleolus
-DNA is chromosome
-DNA is a molecule

Macro-molecules

FFour that make up our body: Carbohydrates -glucouse
                                               Proteins 
                                               Lipids 
                                               Nucleic Acids  -DNA/RNA


DNA: Double helices 

Never see 2 purens  












Brain anatomy- parts of the brain 

Word
Function
Brainstem (September)
Controls of flow of actions from the brain to the rest of the body
Cerebellum (September)
Receives information from sensory systems
Cerebrum (Makenzie)
It is the largest part of human brain and it is divided into four parts.
Right brain (Makenzie)
The right brain coordinates the left side of the body and creates creativity and arts.
Frontal Lobe (Jordan)
Controls cognitive skills like emotional expression, problem solving, and memory
Sensory Strip
(Jordan)
A band of neurons in your cerebrum or cerebral cortex that controls the 5 senses.
Medulla
(Riley)
The medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the medulla.
Pons
(Riley)
The part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus.
Occipital (Alyssiana Hugel)
One of the four major lobes, that is responsible for your vision.
Meninges
(Alyssiana Hugel)
Three membranes that cover the spinal cord and the brain. The three membranes are dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Thalamus
(Will)
The thalamus is responsible for the sleep and wake cycle
Temporal
(Will)
The temporal lobe is mostly responsible for hearing
Parietal
 (Lyric)
attached to the wall of the body or of a body cavity or hollow structure.



Hypothalamus (josh)
a region of the forebrain below the thalamus that coordinates both the autonomic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary, controlling body temperature, thirst, hunger, and other homeostatic systems, and involved in sleep and emotional activity.
Pituitary gland
(josh)
Controls hormones in the body and triggers puberty in the body so that it may grow to it’s full adult form
Pineal gland (erika)
Small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone which modulates sleep patterns in both circadian and seasonal cycles.
Broca’s Area (erika)
region in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain with functions linked to speech production.








Iron Chef Lab

Background:

        When my teacher put out 5 boxes out on tables, 5 groups went head to head fighting over which box they wanted. Each were filled with goodies such as corn, pesticides, and soda. My team sadly was the last group to choose so we got stuck with strawberries. Our job was to come up with a lab that has to do with organic and conventional strawberries.

        When trying to come up with a great lab that has to do with strawberries, we noticed that the original strawberries were starting to mold. With that in mind, we thought, why not figure out if different types of fungus grow and the to different types of strawberries since on has a lot of pesticides and the other doesn't.


Making Agar:

        With the idea we had in mind, we needed a way to help speed the molding process along so we made agar. The process to making agar is very short and simple.


First we measured out the water and how many agar tablets we needed.

We then added the crushed up powder mix to the water and put it on a hot plate to warm and create the agar as shown in the photo on the right .







        To give more options in our lab not only did we make regular agar but we also made potato starch agar. After making them both, we then pored them into the little dishes.We then waited till our next class when the agar had cooled. We then got cotton swabs and swabbed the strawberry and then rubbed the cotton into the agar.  In our lab we marked each one with the type of agar, what type of strawberry and how many weeks we would check it at.

20161025_113254.jpg
We created a total of 12 dishes:


               - 1 regular agar swabbed with organic strawberries
                      marked at 1 week
               - 1 regular agar swabbed with organic strawberries 
                      marked at 1.5 weeks
                 
               - 1 regular agar swabbed with conventional agar marked
                      at 1 week          
               - 1 regular agar swabbed with conventional agar marked
                      at 1.5 weeks

               - 1 regular agar no swab marked at 1 week
               - 1 regular agar no swab marked at 1.5 weeks


                - 1 P.D.A agar swabbed with organic strawberries
                                                                        marked at 1 week
               - 1 P.D.A agar swabbed with organic strawberries
                      marked at 1.5 weeks
                 
               - 1 P.D.A agar swabbed with conventional agar marked
                      at 1 week          
               - 1 P.D.A agar swabbed with conventional agar marked
                      at 1.5 weeks

               - 1 P.D.A agar no swab marked at 1 week
               - 1 P.D.A agar no swab marked at 1.5 weeks



And with that, we waited by putting it in the incubator till it was time to stain and see what kind of mold it grew.


Staining Process:

When the week had gone by to check on our first batch we started staining.



-- The first step was to swab the bacteria that started growing and rub it in with water on a slide.

-- We then heated it up enough to make the bacteria stick to the slide.

-- After that we would then stain it with a blue dye. We waited about a minute and then rinsed it off with water.

-- We then added droplets of iodine and waited about 30 seconds and also rinsed it off with water.

-- After that we then added ethanol and rinsed it off with water as quickly as possible.

Once it was dry we were then able to look at it under a microscope. We would repeatably did this every class and tried to keep on schedule.


 There were many interruptions that disturbed our lab that might have made a difference.

  1. Something got into our non swabbed dishes and contaminated our project.
  2. We didn't always wear gloves when we should have such as when we stained the bacteria.
  3. The incubator we had placed our bacteria in we turned off when we were not there by another class. 
  4. Our bacteria was in the same incubator with several other things such as raw meat, other bacteria from phone, finger and several other surfaces.
  5. We were not always able to check on our projects the exact day we needed to because of a short class period or our certain class not landing on the correct day.








Poop Lab


Steps on how to make poop:

Step one: 
  • Insert food into the mouth.
  • Begin to chop up the food with your incisors and molars as posed with the scissors and cups.
  • As you chew, the enzyme in your mouth, amylase, is slowly starting to break down the starch from the food in your mouth.  

           

                           ***FUN FACT***
        The tongue has on average 3,000 - 10,000 taste buds.




Step two:
  • Once you have crushed all the food between your incisors and molar proceed to swallow and send the chewed up food to the esophagus as the photo is mimicking with the paper towel and the students shoving down the food into the plastic bag. 
  • After the food goes down the esophagus, it leads out into the stomach. 

   

                        ***FUN FACT***
 The esophagus is a pink moist muscular tissue called mucous that is 8 inches long.




Step three: 
  • As the food reaches the stomach, the stomach starts to contract to crush down the food as imitated with the students hands breaking it into smaller pieces. 
  • The following enzymes in the stomach consists of pepsin, lipase and HCI which help to chemically break down the food in the stomach.
  • Once the food in the stomach is all crushed up, go ahead and send it straight down to the small intestine.
  • Between the stomach and the small intestine, the food will spend about six to eight hours digesting.
  • A plastic bag acted as the stomach because it has a seal and cannot spill out and with the amount of acid in your stomach, if were to leak out, would poison your body.
                        

                          ***FUN FACT***

         When you blush, the walls of your stomach also turn red.




Step four: 
  • Once it has reached the small intestine, slowly start to contract mush of food.
  • This is the stop where all the nutrient is taken in. 
  • As represented, the nylon stocking is used because it keeps all the solids in while letting the liquids drain out and soaked up by the pee pad.   
  • The enzymes that are in this part of the digestive system are bile, lipase, amylase, and pepsin which all help break down or turn into the nutrients your body needs. 
  • Now send it down to the large intestine and after that to the rectum.
                         


                           ***FUN FACT***
      The small intestine is 7 meters long or 23 feet.





Step five:
  • After just coming out of the large intestine, the "food" will begin the process contracting and this is where you will feel the need to go to the bathroom. 
  • While the rectum is not only contracting, it is also absorbing water. 
  • Next, push the "food" out from the anal. Now being out of the body, the proper term would now be feces.



                           


                            ***FUN FACT***
         Feces is made out of all the things that your body does not need and is left over.








Additional Information

Constipation: The reason that one might be constipated is because the body, or the large intestine, is absorbing to much water. Therefore, this person will get backed up.

Diarrhea: The opposite goes for diarrhea. The body is not absorbing enough water.  

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